Madagascar is approx. It separated from the African continent 150 million years ago, and since then the development of flora and fauna has been independent and unhindered. The flora of Madagascar contains many so-called endemic species. This means that more than 75% of the plant species found here are found exclusively on the island.
One of the most interesting trees on the island is the baobab. In the native language, the baobab is called “Reniala,” meaning the mother of the forest. This description is due not only to the size of the tree but also to its age. Baobabs can live for up to a thousand years. There are eight species of baobabs around the world, seven of which are found only in Madagascar.
Baobabs store water in their stems, which is fibrous in nature – due to water retention. The circumference of the baobab can be up to 30 m, so it can be up to 9 m in diameter.
During its development, this fantastic tree has developed its ability to survive in dry areas, too high a humidity is actually detrimental to baobabs. This is the reason why e.g. the Morondava baobab is in danger. Due to nearby rice production, the region has become too wet for baobabs. Some of the baobabs in the region have already fallen victim to these victims. To limit water loss, baobabs show their leaves only for a short time. In the dry period, the leaves isolate. Baob bean flowers come in a wide variety of colors, from white to yellow to dark red. Flowering depends on the species. The flowers are mainly pollinated by various bat species. The fruit of the baobab can be a dozen seeds 40 cm long and 15 cm in diameter. The fruit, being rich in vitamins, is consumed by the indigenous population.
Of Madagascar’s fauna, lemurs and chameleons are the most popular. The largest predator in the island nation is the fossil. Hedgehogs are similar to European hedgehogs, this is also an example of convergent evolution because it is not related to hedgehogs. The river pig lives not only in the island nation but can even be found in Africa. Chameleons are one of the most recognizable representatives of lizards, most of their species are found in the island nation. They are able to move their eyes independently and when they hunt for an insect, they kill their long, sticky tongue. The chameleon is not the only reptile in the island nation, even a Nile crocodile lives here.
Many species of lemurs have developed, such as the ring-tailed lemur, the indri, the watermelon lemur, the Verreaux sifaka, and the mouse lemur, the world’s smallest primate. Some speculate that 35-55 million years ago, when it was even closer to Africa, some lemurs drifted to the island on a raft formed of tree trunks.
Madagascar is the land of the Lemurs. With the exception of the species living in Mayotte, all 103 live lemur species are endemic in Madagascar. Lemurs developed freely on the island because they have relatively few predators. In Madagascar, its only predator is the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox).
The teachers are part of the faunistic characteristics of Madagascar. The fields are insecticidal mammals that live in rain and dry forests. While the life of the Great Plain striped terns (Hemicentetes semispinosus) is seriously endangered by the destruction of their habitat, in the rainy season tern terns (Tenrec ecaudatus) are often found near watercourses. Extreme As far as rodents are concerned, the Madagascar giant rat (Hypogeomys antimena) should not be mentioned. It is the largest rodent in Madagascar. However, it is a very limited habitat located on the land of Sakalava between the rivers Tomitsy and Tsiribihina.
New species are constantly being discovered on the island. At Lake Alaotra, north of Antananarivo, a new cat-sized carnivore (salanoia durrelli) has been discovered. Its primary food source is crustaceans and molluscs from the lake. In Ranomafana and Andasi, a new species of spider – the Darwinian bark spider (Caerostris darwini) – was discovered 2 years ago, and anchor lines can reach up to 25 meters. This year, two mouse lemurs (Microcebus tanosi and Microcebus marohita) were discovered. Ideally, up to 32 young animals can be born from a single litter.
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